The Nine Myths of Operation Desert Storm and the Gulf War


Stockpiled Ordanance near Iraq, Camp Doha, 1993

Stockpiled Ordinance (EOD) 1993

Eye-opening interview with Carol Rosin about the late Werner von Braun

German Scientist Werner von Braun Anticipated
Terrorists, Asteroids and ETs on American "Enemy's List"

© 2004 by Linda Moulton Howe

BOMBSHELL INTERVIEW WITH Dr CAROL ROSIN ABOUT HER WORK WITH THE LATE GERMAN SCIENTIST Dr WERNER VON BRAUN / VON BRAUN ANTICIPATED TERRORISTS, ASTEROIDS AND ETs ON AMERICA's 'ENEMIES LIST!' / FORESAW AND WARNED OF 'WAR IN SPACE' AS AN EVENTUALITY! –

Werner Von Braun, Ph.D., rocket physicist from Germany who lead American space development after WWII.
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Carol Rosin founded, and is President of, the Institute for Cooperation in Space and Space Preservation Trust Foundation, Ventura, California.

http://www.peaceinspace.com
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June 20, 2004 Ventura, California – One of the most famous names from the beginning of the American rocket and missile programs after World War II is Wernher von Braun. With the defeat of Germany and Japan in 1945 after the United States dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Dr. von Braun and 126 other German rocket scientists were brought to the United States under a government project called "Paperclip." They were based at Fort Bliss, Texas and their work was focused at the White Sands Missile Range north of Ft. Bliss in southern New Mexico.

Dr. von Braun became famous for his expertise and his visionary goal to expand man's knowledge through the exploration of space. His pioneering work led to the development of the Explorer satellites, the Jupiter and Jupiter-C rockets, Pershing, the Redstone rocket, Saturn rockets, and Skylab, the world's first space station. Additionally, his determination to "go where no man has gone before" led America's first landing on the moon in 1969 during the John F. Kennedy administration.

In 1970, NASA asked Dr. von Braun to move to Washington, D.C., to head up the strategic planning effort for the government space agency. But in less than two years he decided to retire from NASA and and went to work for Fairchild Industries of Germantown, Maryland, where he met a 6th grade school teacher named Carol Rosin. She was famous for producing a "Students Studying on Spaceship Earth" project for her school classes. Dr. von Braun asked Carol to join him at Fairchild Industries to help him create a ban of weapons in space.

As President Eisenhower had warned about the threat of the "military-industrial complex" to America's future, Dr. Werner warned that space should be kept free from intrusion by that same military-industrial power. Carol left her teaching and went to work for Dr. von Braun in 1974. He was her mentor until he died in Alexandria, Virginia on June 16, 1977.

Afterward, Carol Rosin has persisted for nearly thirty years in trying to carry out Dr. von Braun's request to get weapons banned from space. She is now President of the Institute for Cooperation in Space and of the Space Preservation Trust Foundation. Last year on December 8, 2003, her U. S. Space Preservation Act was placed by Representative Dennis Kucinich as House Bill 3657 in the 108th Congress. Its statement of purpose: "To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and (by prohibiting) the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes."

Congressman Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) introduced Carol Rosin's U. S. Space Preservation Act as House Bill 3657 on December 8, 2003. Further, she has written a Space Preservation Treaty to be introduced to nations of the world for signing through the United Nations to permanently ban basing of weapons in space.

In the past 30 years as Carol has worked hard to carry out Dr. von Braun's challenge to her, she has often thought of his warnings about the misuse of space and an "Enemy's List" that he said the American government was using to keep the media and public in support of Pentagon budgets.

– INTERVIEW –

Carol Rosin, President, Institute for Cooperation in Space and Space Preservation Trust Foundation, Ventura, California: "The message that he (Werner von Braun) was giving me continually was that we must prevent the weaponization of space from happening because otherwise the truth would never be officially acknowledged about who we were, who we are, as a human species in the universes.

Part B

to that was the way to achieve peace on this planet is to preserve the peace that there must be in space in order for there to be peace on Earth.

Q: YOU SAID 'UNIVERSES,' PLURAL?

'Universes,' is the way he put it to me. I had never heard that term before. I thought we lived in (the only) galaxy solar system universe. But he always used the word 'universes.'

Q: AS IF HE HAD KNOWLEDGE OF OTHER UNIVERSES?

Exactly.

Q: DID HE TALK WITH YOU SPECIFICALLY ABOUT KNOWLEDGE OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL ENTITIES?

Dr. von Braun would have tears in his eyes every time – and he repeated this continuously to me when he talked about us in the galaxy – he would say 'with a hundred billion stars in our galaxy alone. What would make us think that we are the only life form?' That was a very typical, repeated quote.

The other one that he would say is that he knew that we must have peace in space in order to bring the truth in. The only time he used the word, 'extraterrestrial' and 'alien' – and he did this repeatedly as well – was when he spoke to me about the formula for war. That included the fact that when I entered the industry, we were in a supposed Cold War with Russia.

He would say, 'Let's start here where you are.' There are continuous wars and enemies identified in order to perpetuate these wars, always with the ultimate goal of seizing the high ground of outer space to dominate and control the minds of people on Earth so they would not be given the truth, truthful information about who we really are in the universes.

Q: WHAT WAS HIS DEFINITION OF WHAT WE REALLY ARE IN THE UNIVERSES?

Well, this is what he did not describe. I believe what was happening is that he was under threat.

American "Enemy's List" to Sustain War Mode and Pentagon Budgets

    • Soviet Union
    • Terorrists
    • Asteroids
    • Extraterrestrials

Q: THAT IS WHY HE GAVE YOU AN ENEMY'S LIST THAT WOULD BE PERPETUATED?

That's right. He repeated this continuously. He would say that starting where I entered the industry with the supposed Russian threat, but never actually existed ­ the Russians were made to be the enemy. Then there would be terrorists, Third World country threats. there would be an asteroid threat. They might even say to us to try to influence the public into believing that there are many reasons for why we should put weapons in space. There might be a reason to protect our assets in space.

But, the real one that he was always holding off on and would say again with tears filling his eyes every time he said this to me repeatedly was that the last card they are holding is the 'alien card,' the extraterrestrial card and none of them are hostile. In any way he could say those words, the intonation was always on, 'None of them are hostile. It's all a lie.' So, in other words, all the enemies that have been presented to us along the way ­ it's a lie with always the intention of seizing the high ground to keep the truth from us.

Q: MEANING THE IMPLICATION IS THAT THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, PERHAPS EVEN IN COOPERATION WITH AUTHORITIES IN RUSSIA, HAVE PLAYED A GAME OF PERPETUATING ENEMIES IN ORDER TO KEEP THE MONEY FLOWING INTO THE WAR MACHINES?

Actually he (von Braun) never implied that the Russians were part of this. He implied to me that the kernel of it was in the United States and that this had to be stopped and he thought that I, as a woman in those days with curly hair and short skirts, could get into any meeting where a man could probably never say the things that I could.

At that time, he gave me the assignment of preventing the weaponization of space. He also mentioned that when he and the other scientists came here (Project Paper Clip) ­ so many rumors were spread about them, that they were Nazis and were horrible people and that was all lies.

Q: THAT WAS GERMANY AND PROJECT PAPER CLIP.

Yes, of course. I notice that even some people in the peace movement refer to von Braun and the scientists as people who started the Star Wars program (under Reagan). That's just not true. It's a lie. They were purely scientists who came here to be space and rocket scientists, but they were always sucked up into this system that has been existing in the old, obsolete earth-bound paradigm. At least that's as much intelligence as the population is given to keep us in the earth-bound paradigm. But these men were far ahead. These were space age people."

Q: DID HE GIVE YOU ANY SPECIFICS ABOUT WHO IN THE UNITED STATES WOULD STAND TO GAIN THE MOST FROM PERPETUATING A GAME OF WAR FOR MONEY AND POWER?

Yes, he described it not as a blame on just a certain group. He described it as the inexorably linked military-industrial-lab-university-NASA and other space agencies-intelligence community-government complex ­ that it was intertwined, but there was a group that knew all of it. He did not act as if he knew who it was.


– ET Threat to Perpetuate Military-Industrial-Corporate-Academic Complex –

Q: FROM YOUR PERSPECTIVE, THE GREATEST SECRET THAT WERNER VON BRAUN WOULD BE HIDING WOULD BE THE FACT THAT THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL ENTITY IS A REALITY. BUT HIS CONCERN WAS THAT INSTEAD OF BEING HONEST ABOUT ITS MOTIVATION, THAT THE U. S. WOULD ULTIMATELY USE ETs AS ANOTHER THREAT IN ORDER TO PERPETUATE BUDGETS FOR THE PENTAGON?

Not just for the Pentagon, but aerospace industries, labs, universities and anyone else who has a job and makes a profit from keeping this a secret. Although most of the people in the industry don't even know there is this big secret of all time – and yes, you have articulated this very beautifully. You are not at all putting words in my mouth – that's exactly what I'm saying.

Except that it's not the influence of just people in the Pentagon. This is some how, as he would put it, inexorably linked to all the facets of profit-making, of so-called security and defense mechanisms, of people who just need a job to survive and pay for their kids' college education and also to keep the public stupid.

I have felt that since this happened, since I learned from the heart of von Braun, that this huge secret is being kept ­ it has to have something to do with the 'off-planet culture,' that I call OPC phenomenon ­ that in fact, it was so real that this man could hardly talk about this big secret and did not because of the threats to his life and probably to the lives of others who worked with him who might or might not have known. But he certainly did.

Q: WHY DOESN'T CHINA SPEAK OUT ABOUT ETs?

I did not put all this together for many years. I was one of the people in a state of denial myself. I was a high paid woman executive in an aerospace company who had been given an assignment from Werner von Braun, but always thought of myself as just an educator, a school teacher, to keep weapons out of space so that as he would repeat continuously, 'The truth would not only be revealed, disclosed' – that official acknowledgement has happened in different parts of the world, but not in the United States.

I'm an official adviser to China. I've talked with a lot of people over there and I feel they know the secret, but being what they consider to be the Middle Kingdom, they wait for other countries ­ including the United States to come forward. They are not what I would call initiators of something so powerful. But they are very much seekers of the truth and working on these issues.

Q: MEANING THEY ARE WAITING FOR THE UNITED STATES TO HOLD THAT GLOBAL PRESS CONFERENCE OF ALL CENTURIES TO SAY WE'RE NOT ALONE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND NOW WE ARE GOING TO INTRODUCE YOU TO EXTRATERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL ENTITIES?

I actually had years ago one of the (Chinese) scientists at a university tell me that that is what they were waiting for. And I said, 'Well, if you know the truth, why don't you go public with it?'

They said, 'Well we wait because we consider ourselves to be of the Middle Kingdom and we don't want to be aggressive in any way, even though (China) has been identified as one of the potential enemies against the United States. But they are not. And neither are the Russians or any other country that I know of except for the individuals or parts of cultures that we have antagonized so much that they are so angry with us at this time.

So, I think Werner von Braun saw this back in the 1970s. He died in 1977. Back into the 1940s and 1950s was when he started to become aware of what the potential benefits of outer space were to humanity.

– Must Prevent Weaponization of Space –

But what he always added on to his talks with me – that for years I did not say because of the ridicule factor – was this message that we must prevent the weaponization of space from happening and that the big lie is that none of them are hostile, talking about this list of potential enemies against whom we have been taught to fear and even hate – that none of them are hostile.

We are all essence and none of them are hostile haunted me for years until the early 2000s I started to learn about high level military intelligence, corporate people, who had already gone public by saying things like that, but also by emphasizing the fact that we must keep weapons out of space and that there is other life in the universe.

I'm just tuning into it myself and it has caused me to work with people around the world who want to get a Space Preservation Treaty signed and we do have a companion bill in the Congress that was introduced even before the treaty came forward by Congressman Dennis Kucinich (Dem-10th Congressional District, Ohio) and others who co-sponsored it to call for a ban on ALL space-based weapons. We don't have to study which ones. It would also prevent the destruction or damage of anything in space that is in orbit.

In other words, our satellites that we need to verify what is in space coming in (toward Earth) and what is on Earth so we can see the Earth to reduce and eliminate missiles and nuclear weapons and other dangerous and polluting technologies on the planet. This must be done – we must protect those satellites and they should NOT be used as 'force multipliers' in war games which is the old scenario. But that is happening.

Q: WHY DO YOU THINK ADVANCED INTELLIGENCE – ONE OR MORE OF THEM – WOULD EVEN ALLOW THE UNITED STATES OR ANY COUNTRY ON THIS PLANET TO DEVELOP WEAPONS IN SPACE? WHY WOULDN'T THEY INTERFERE BECAUSE IT IS TOO DANGEROUS?

From my information, they do not interfere. They will not, however, allow us to take our weapons and toxins into space. They will, however, let the human species do whatever it does to itself. That's the information I've been given and that's what I see happening. I have no evidence myself for this, but I've read that OPCs (Off-Planet Cultures) have shut down the attempt to put operational weapons in space. I have also been given information that they will not interfere with what we do.

However, there is a possibility that they would leave if we set off nuclear bombs, nuclear technology, and/or continue with the space-based weapons program. I am moving to Ecuador now, but we have an office still in Vancouver, B. C., Canada and people I'm working with here will continue in the United States. I'll be doing it from Ecuador.

But I'm 60 years old now and I've gone through this issue for 30 years now day and night, holding as von Braun did this piece of information about this big lie that's being told – this canopy of lies that especially in the U. S. and because we keep it such a big secret here – has been kept over our heads. It's like we live behind this veil of secrecy and so many of us who know pieces of it – whether it's intuitively or by experience or by a learning process – we keep way under the radar. We talk about it at dinner from a non-believing state to a giggle to an 'Oh, my God! This is real!'

Q: BUT, CAROL, IF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA HAS ALREADY MILITARIZED SPACE OF THIS PLANET, HOW COULD WE POSSIBLY ACHIEVE A TREATY NOW TO ELIMINATE SPACE-BASED WEAPONS?

Because we have not weaponized space. There are not operational weapons in space patrolling us at this time. We have just enough time – that's how – to get a Space Preservation Treaty signed into law. You can see this treaty draft on www.peaceinspace.com. You can also see the companion Space Preservation Act now in 2004 ­ the number is H. R. 3615 that's been introduced into the Congress (by Rep. Dennis Kucinich).

Congress in the U. S. and this Administration are not going to produce a ban on space-based weapons. In fact, the next administration might not either, UNLESS we get world leaders to sign the Space Preservation Treaty. That treaty getting signed would put the necessary pressure that we need on the U. S. Congress and Administration. So, the answer is now available to us, we have the bill in Congress and a real treaty to be signed.

Q: AND IF THIS DOES NOT HAPPEN, CAROL, WHAT IS THE WORST CASE SCENARIO IN YOUR MIND?

In my mind, it's inevitable obliteration of the human species. I believe that is a very possible reality. I think we are very close to it, we are in grave danger from any one of a number of manmade or natural disasters that could occur.

Q: BUT CHINA, FOR EXAMPLE, IS GOING TO BE GOING TO THE MOON SHORTLY AND THE U. S. IS CONCERNED ABOUT CHINA AS A POLITICAL FORCE ON THE EARTH. I CAN'T HELP BUT WONDER IF WE ARE HEADED TOWARD TERRITORIAL CONFLICTS ALREADY IN THE NEXT 5 OR 6 YEARS ABOUT WHO IS ON THE MOON.

We are headed toward territorial conflicts in space and on the moon. That's the whole point of this in the earth-bound context and paradigm. But China does not want weapons in space. Their leaders have said that for many decades. So has Russia said that. These are the two main space super powers with the United States.

Q: THAT'S WHY THE WERNER VON BRAUN STATEMENT THAT THE UNITED STATES WOULD USE AS AN ENEMY'S LIST EXTRATERRESTRIALS IS SIGNIFICANT HERE, BECAUSE WE WOULD THEN JUSTIFY SPACE-BASED WEAPONRY AGAINST EXTRATERRESTRIALS?

That we would justify space-based weapons against any country that the U. S. population and government leaders will buy into as long as that scenario holds.
By the way, everything that I've just said to you has already been proven to come true. In 1977, I was talking about the fact that there was going to be a Gulf War because I was in a meeting when it was being planned. In 1977! It's one of the reasons I woke up and resigned from my cushy position in the industry.

I couldn't believe there was a chart on the wall of potential enemies against which we were going to build space-based weapons that I and most people in the room had never even heard of. This is how these wars are planned and I went forward with that story for years. And then three months before the first Gulf War started, my husband as my witness will tell you that I sat down watching TV waiting for the war with even my husband saying, 'Carol, you've flipped out.' You've gone over the top. No one is talking about a war in the Gulf.'

Because there was a certain amount of money in the space-based weapons program that I was told would be in it when they were ready to pulling space-based weapons to test the next phase of weapons. By the way, part of the formula that I didn't mention earlier that is part of the creating the scenario of enemies and wars leading to the potential extraterrestrial threat is that they have to have these wars in order to dump the old weapons, test the new weapons, and rationalize the budgets for the next set of weapons.

This is what they educate the public and the leaders about in order to get their next enormous budgets. Notice how in each war, if you track the weapon systems that have been used, they are aiming toward the most advanced weaponry, the most horrific weaponry, that the human species has mostly yet to imagine. But that's what is being tested in each war, aiming at always seizing the high ground and putting these weapons up in space.

Because if you put these weapons up in geosynchronous orbit just 22,300 miles above the earth in just three spots in geosynchronous orbit, you hit the whole footprint of the entire Earth. you can control the Earth from that location in just three spots. Imagine what they could do with the highest forms of weapons technology.

– 2012? –

Q: DID DR. VON BRAUN EVER SAY ANYTHING TO YOU ABOUT THE YEAR 2012 AS BEING SOME KIND OF END YEAR? THAT THERE WOULD BE DANGER IF SOMETHING WAS NOT ACCOMPLISHED BY THAT YEAR?

No, he did not ever mention that to me, but what he did say about the timing is that the timing was critical to keep weapons out of space. His timing was with a sense of urgency that, 'Before the momentum of funding vested interests and technology is put into place that is as dangerous as is the deployment of operational weapons themselves, we must achieve a ban on all space-based weapons on this planet.'"

Web site: http://www.peaceinspace.com

© 2004 by Linda Moulton Howe

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Message from: William (Bill) Mandel:

I would like to see evidence that U.S. intelligence succeeded in recruiting Markus Wolf. When tried by the German government for heading the intelligence service of the GDR (East Germany), Wolf defended his coduct with great dignity and adherence to principle. Whether the principles in which he believed were right or wrong is another matter entirely.



My autobiography, SAYING NO TO POWER (Introduction by Howard Zinn), is a history of how the American people fought to defend and expand its rights since the 1920s (I'm 87) employing the form of the life of a 30s AND 60s activist, one who was involved in most serious movements: student, labor, 45 years of efforts to prevent war with the USSR, civil rights South and North, women's liberation [my late wife appears on 50 pages], 37 years on Pacifica Radio [where I invented talk radio], civil liberties. You may hear/see my testimony before different McCarthy-Cold-War-Era witch-hunting committees [used in six films and a play]) on my website, http://www.billmandel.net I am the author of five books in my academic field. For an autographed copy, send me $24 at 4466 View Pl.,#106, Oakland, CA. 94611

-----Original Message-----
From: MagickMirr@aol.com [mailto:MagickMirr@aol.com]
Sent: Saturday, June 19, 2004 11:03 PM

In a message dated 6/20/2004 1:14:00 AM Eastern Standard Time, victorgm@webtv.net writes:
[Crol Rosen--alleged quote from Von Braun]
At that time, he gave me the assignment of preventing the weaponization
of space. He also mentioned that when he and the other scientists came
here (Project Paper Clip) ­ so many rumors were spread about them,
that they were Nazis and were horrible people and that was all lies.
[E.Macer-Story]
Perhaps Dr. Von Braun had no actual knowledge of the inner workings of the espionage mechanism. For in his autobiography "The Man Without A Face" Soviet-East German spymaster Marcus Wolf describes extensive recruiting by U.S. intelligence agencies of those with known Nazi career records, persons the East Berlin agencies would not hire.In fact, the U.S. after the unification of Germany recruited Mr. Wolf himself!!
all for now--E.Macer-Story (Eugenia)

EXCLUSIVE TO TIME MAGAZINE: NEW HORRIFIC ABUSE CHARGES BY U.S. MILITARY 'LIBERATORS' / CLASSIFIED SECTION OF THE MILITARY'S PRISONER ABUSE REPORT DETAIL SEXUAL ASSAULTS ON YOUNG WOMEN DETAINEES BY SADISTIC AMERICAN LIBERATORS –
By Viveca Novak and Douglas Waller, Sunday, June 20, 2004, 2:02 PM EST

FLASH: Iraqi detainee had electrical wires attached to his genitals which forced a vein in his penis to rupture and then urinate blood; was refused medical attention by his American 'liberators!'

Could the abuse of prisoners in Iraq have gone beyond the beatings and sexual humiliation already alleged? Unreleased, classified parts of the report on prison abuse from Major General Anthony Taguba, which were read to TIME, contain indication of mistreatment of female prisoners.

In a Feb 21 statement to Taguba, Lieut Colonel Steven L Jordan, former head of the Abu Ghraib interrogation center, said he had received reports "that there were members of the MI [Military Intelligence] community that had come over and done a late-night interrogation of two female detainees" last October.

According to a statement by Jordan's boss, Colonel Thomas Pappas, three interrogators were later cited for violations of military law in their handling of the two females, ages 17 and 18. Senate Armed Services Committee investigators are probing whether the two women were sexually abused. The Pentagon declined to comment.

Meanwhile, a class action filed in California on behalf of former detainees raises the specter of brutal physical abuse.

One plaintiff, identified only as Neisef, claims that after he was taken from his home on the outskirts of Baghdad last November and sent to Abu Ghraib, Americans made him disrobe and ATTACHED ELECTRICAL WIRES TO HIS GENITALS. He claims he was SHOCKED THREE TIMES. Although a VEIN IN HIS PENIS RUPTURED AND HE HAD BLOOD IN HIS URINE, he says, he was refused medical attention.

In another session, Neisef claims, he was held down by two men while a uniformed woman FORCED HIM TO HAVE SEX WITH HER. "I was crying," said Neisef, 28. "I felt like my whole manhood was gone." The class action also claims that detainees were raped in prison. On June 6, Neisef was released, after a U.S. civilian told him, he says, that he had BEEN WRONGLY ACCUSED BY INFORMANTS.

A U.S. military spokesman in Baghdad confirms that a prisoner with Neisef's ID number was released on that date, and TIME has obtained a copy of his release order. But the Pentagon would not comment on the specifics of Neisef's account.

With reporting by Mark Thompson

© Copyright 2004 Time, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Space Based Laser

ANTI-SATELLITE WEAPONS (ASATS)

The following is a brief introduction for the non-space weapons expert by a layperson gleaned primarily from university-level library and Internet resources and will provide a brief history of negotiated treaties, describe the early U.S. and Russian ASAT systems, describe the ‘current’ ASAT systems being developed, and describe some of the future ASAT systems planners envision. Some novel ASAT systems will be described. Hardening techniques will be briefly described and finally, implications on future problems relating to the health of humans living in our atmosphere will be suggested.

ASATs or anti-satellite weapons are any object or process with the potential to destroy or make inoperable a satellite.

The following brief legal history is important given that international treaties will be either renegotiated, broken, or continually broken as presently researched systems and future systems are tested and deployed. The Partial Test-Ban Treaty, signed on August 5, 1963 bans nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. The next international treaty, the Outer Space Treaty, was signed on January 27, 1967 and says this: "States parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner..." (7). The ABM (Anti- Ballistic Missile) Treaty was signed May 26, 1972 and states: "Each Party undertakes to not develop, test, or deploy ABM systems or components which are sea-based, air-based, space-based, or mobile land-based" (7). The ABM treaty does not specifically prohibit research on and development of anti-satellite weapons, thus, this provides loopholes. ASATs and ABM weapons use the same technologies so that ABM weapons can be developed by developing ASATs, ..... treaties can be broken, disregarded, or euphemistically sidestepped. As an example of how our government will skirt the law, although treaties disallow testing of anti-satellite weapons against satellites in space, the U.S. recently tested a laser against an Air Force satellite in space. The government claimed it was not testing the laser as a weapon but, rather, was testing the ‘survivability’ of the satellite. Semantic quibbling to get around the law!

The U.S. and Russians have been developing ASATs since the late 50's. The first successful satellite intercept occurred May 24, 1962 and was launched by the U.S. from Kwajalein Atoll. It was reported as a "close intercept ". The first generation ASATs were either non-nuclear or nuclear ballistic missile launched weapons that were either direct hit-to-kill devices, or satellites that in close proximity to the target satellite would explode with the satellite debris as the shrapnel particles that destroy the target satellite. In the case of nuclear-tipped rocket used as an ASAT, the thermal blast, x-rays, or other radiation effects, or electro-magnetic effects would be the kill mechanism. An early Russian ASAT effort was a multi-staged rocket with a small ground controlled satellite with direct hit-to-kill capability. A self-guided homing vehicle was tried using infrared homing, but the system failed several times in testing, was not successful in the 60's, and was dropped.

The American developed and tested exoatmospheric (outside Earth’s atmosphere) nuclear ASATs using kiloton, and, a 1.4 megaton nuclear weapon was detonated at an altitude of 248 miles on July 9, 1962. The actual satellite kill mechanism for nuclear explosion results from thermal heating, through magnetic field effects on electronic components and semi-conductors. X-ray radiation hitting the satellite surface creates a very high surface electrical potential and high surface currents. These surface currents produce strong magnetic fields that penetrate the satellite metal skin and disrupt satellite electronics. At the time of these tests, designers were ‘plagued’ with a highly disruptive "electromagnetic pulse" that could and did destroy satellites that were unintended as targets. The Americans abandoned nuclear testing in space, but the "system generated electro-magnetic pulse" was seen as a potential energy source for latter generation ASAT designs. They are still on the weapons designer’s tables.

In the 1970s, the Americans pursued a two-tracked strategy of attempting to negotiate with the Soviets to eliminate ASAT systems of the future and simultaneously developing a new ASAT system, an air-launched missile with infrared homing capability. A two-staged rocket was launched from a Navy F-15 jet at high altitude. The rocket was tipped with a miniature homing vehicle, self-propelled with on-board guidance that was a direct hit-to-kill system. The homing system used infrared radiation (heat) to guide the kill vehicle to crash into the target satellite. That system was defunded in segments, from 100 or so launch vehicles at the start, 40+ F-15s, and then down to where it was eventually dropped during the Reagan administration. It was never operational as a system although tests confirmed that it could knock a satellite out of the sky.

A radical shift in interest in ASATs, funding for ASATs, and development of ASATs took place in the Reagan presidency and continues to today. In 1965, Arthur Kantrowitz, the then-Director of AVCO Corporation, probably made the "first proposal for the use of particle beam weapons..." (6). In addition to the particle beams, the newer generation of ASATs includes another category of weapons referred to as ‘Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). The distinction between the two is sometimes blurred. Particle beam weapons are a group of weapons that use electro-magnetic energy to accelerate particles, neutral atoms being likely candidates, to velocities close to the speed of light. A particle beam weapon called a ‘rail gun,’ is said to accelerate ‘charged’ particles to very high velocities. High-energy particle beams would, like nuclear explosions, either produce high surface temperatures, burning out the satellite electronics, produce high surface currents that would in turn produce electro-magnetic fields that would penetrate the skin of the satellite and disrupt sensitive electronics, or produce ions, electrically charged particles, that, depending on the particle type and energy, would disrupt satellite electronics by way of various radiation effects.

Lasers are part of a group of the DEWs that are, in fact, being built and tested. There are several types of lasers that can be used for ASAT weapons but all are devices that deliver highly focused energy as the "thing" that destroys. A wide spectrum of energy sources is available for use as the "stuff" that is moved, at the speed of light, carrying the destructive force. X-rays are the sources of an ‘eximer’ laser, where light is the source for LASER ASATs, and microwaves are the source for MASER ASATs. LASER is an acronym for the phrase-Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. MASER =Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Directed energy weapons therefore will be streams of elementary particles, atoms, electrons, ions, light, microwaves, x-rays, gamma rays and even high powered plasmas that are accelerated to very high velocities that can ruin or destroy satellites.

There is a separate class of DEWS that, as a group, are planned to be spaced based; that is, as satellites themselves. They are called "nuclear pumped ASATs". These are weapons that will use a nuclear detonation in space which will produce x-rays, neutrons, gamma rays, or other parts of the electro-magnetic spectrum that will then be directed at the target satellite. These weapons will instantaneously destroy themselves in the nuclear detonation, are therefore one shot weapons that present danger to Earth’s inhabitants not only by contaminating the near outer space environment, but also as a threat during failed launches (as per the Challenger), and as failed satellites that can crash back to Earth’s atmosphere due to malfunction or collision with space debris. For those ASATs and anti-ballistic missile weapons using nuclear detonation as the source of energy for the weapon, the nuclear material on the space platform will itself be vulnerable to attack from adversary ASATs and further threaten Earth’s environment and inhabitants during conflict and thereafter, as that material could eventually crash back to Earth if dispersed because of satellite destruction.

Unfortunately this nuclear threat is not the only one associated with ASATs. The power for some of the directed energy weapons will come from nuclear reactors stationed in space, the weapon energized by a huge burst of nuclear material fissioning, like in a nuclear powered electric generating plant. This threat is further exacerbated by space-based ASATs, weapons satellites that will be powered by nuclear reactors for the day-to-day electrical needs, running the radar, the communications with the ground station and other satellites, on-board computers, and so forth. Satellites with these reactors will have to be launched, positioned in orbit, and maintained perfectly! Any mistake, however small, could have nuclear material, mostly Plutonium, a very chemically toxic and highly radioactive isotope, raining back down to Earth, polluting the Earth’s surface for generations. Note that this has happened with two Soviet spaced-based nuclear reactors. Malfunctions happened and these reactors crashed back to Earth, burned up in atmosphere, and spread nuclear materials over the face of Earth.

All future ASAT systems are not the very high tech Star Wars types of the Reagan era. Low(er) tech novel solutions are planned with some ready now. For example the Shuttle has satellite recovery ability evidenced by the Hubble repair effort. The captured Hubble could just as well have been an adversary’s spy satellite. Prepositioned space mines detonated when the offending satellite gets close are possible. A terrorist or military attack against a ground control station could disable a satellite just as effectively as an attack against the orbiting satellite. Unmanned satellite recovery is not beyond possibility. Recall that Mars was recently visited by robots.

Electronic signal manipulation is another major class of ASAT weapons effort. The signal to the satellite can be disrupted with a very loud, ‘electronic,’ competing signal. It is thus, ‘jammed.’ The signal to the satellite can be changed with incorrect information replacing the correct information. This is called "spoofing."

A significant and detailed argument about whether ASATs will work can be found in Stares, Space and National Security and The Fallacy of Star Wars by the Union of Concerned Scientists and revolves around the issue of increasing satellite survivability, the process of making a satellite less vulnerable to ASAT attack. An assessment of the argument requires one mentally consider satellites and ASATs in an all out go-for-broke, third world war, no-holds-barred scenario. ASATs will probably work, will be able to shoot down satellites. But, every shot will not result in a satellite kill, and to the extent that the designers have "hardened" their satellite, the satellite will last just that much longer, until, designs of the ASATs can be changed to overcome the hardening.

The methods used to "harden" or ‘increase the survivability of a satellite’ include some of the following:

  1. To begin, a satellite can be moved to a higher orbit. If, for example, the ASAT is a ground launched rocket with direct hit-to-kill capability, moving the satellite can add hours travel time to the satellite, time in which ground controllers could take evasive maneuvers.

  2. For satellite systems under attack by a ASAT with exoatmospheric nuclear warhead tipped capability spreading the satellites far enough apart could keep the nuclear detonation from taking out more than one satellite, hardening ‘the system’.

  3. Changing the satellite profile into one with a low radar cross-section would make it harder to see and therefore harder to knock out. {This method of hardening is particularly ominous. Satellites use large solar panels to generate the electricity to run the satellite. These panels will be eliminated and replaced with nuclear reactors (radioisotope thermal generators- RTGs). The satellite radar cross-section will be reduced but the danger to life on planet Earth will be immeasurably enlarged as these reactors with huge amounts of nuclear isotopes are launched, orbited around Earth, and disposed of. The threat is in the launch and in subsequent accidental reentry to Earth and its atmosphere.(See discussion of Cassini)}.

  4. Stealth technology using radar absorbing materials that can be applied to the satellite surfaces or construction of the satellite with radar absorbing materials is now possible.

  5. Radar and laser illumination sensors that warn the satellite of impending ASAT attack are now available and/or under development. These hardening systems will include filters and special shutters to protect sensors. Note here that an ASAT attack does not have to blow up or completely destroy the satellite but can ruin or make inoperable the satellite by ruining the sensors it employs.

  6. Infrared flares used to confuse a guidance system using infrared sensoring is a reality.

  7. Radar jamming devices would reduce the ability of the ASAT to ‘see’ the satellite.

  8. Radiation hardening includes construction of the satellite with metals that reduce the conductivity to the previously mentioned ‘system generated electro-magnetic pulse’ which arises from an ASAT nuclear explosion. Electrical components are now available, off the shelf, that are radiation hardened. Wrapping electrical components with materials that reduce electro-magnetic field penetration, Faraday cages, are evidently more than a theoretical possibility.

  9. Special materials that can withstand the thermal effects of laser heating are being researched and probably are now available.

  10. Satellites with the ability to ‘shoot back’ will bring the satellite hardening from the defensive phase to the active phase and Star Wars as active war in space will then become a reality.

  11. Redundancy, or having capability for whatever the satellite is positioned to do, in the form of other satellites pre-positioned, to continue the operation after an attack and loss of the original, ‘hardens’ the system, and ensures continued satellite system operation.

  12. Decoys can be employed confusing the ASAT with too many targets, obscuring the operative satellite and in the case of ASATs launched from Earth making destruction very costly.

An important problem arises that will have enormous ‘cost’ consequences for those societies that chose to enter the space weapons race. As soon as a particular satellite is hardened with a particular hardening methodology, in fact as soon as the contracts are signed to build a particular satellite with a particular hardening methodology, "countermeasures" to the hardened satellite will begin to be developed. The contract locks in the development. We buy the hardened satellite and "countermeasures" to it will force us to buy the next more highly developed system that overcomes the "countermeasures." A space-based arms race will ensue and the taxpayer foots the bill.

Lasers using a variety of energy sources are currently being both developed and tested. Lasers can operate from the Earth, from the atmosphere, or from space. All three are being developed. The Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) was tested in October, 1997. Reports on its success indicate that the operators were positive about the outcome. It was tested against an Air Force satellite and was said to have followed the satellite successfully for 30 km.. The test seems to really have been on the equipment that tracks and targets the satellite. This is a device called the SeaLite Beam Director (SLBD) and it is a the critical component of the laser. The laser makes the light. Getting it onto the target for the length of time required is the harder task. The satellite is moving very fast so that tracking and targeting the satellite successfully is vitally important. The SLBD is a large chunk of metal and electronics weighing 28,000 pounds! The MIRACL is itself a large structure. It is like a large combustion engine. It is a large combustion engine, also weighing tons and presently is rated at 2+ megawatt. Calculations, considering hardening techniques of new materials, indicate the power requirements may need to be raised by several orders of magnitude. This implies much larger chunks of equipment to be lifted into space, and most important, power sources, increasingly large nuclear reactors with large loads of radioactive isotopes that can fall back to Earth and contaminate the Earth and atmosphere.

The plan is to put a laser into a Boeing 747. When that effort is successful, size considerations will mean that the space-based laser will not be long in becoming a reality. Although part of the ballistic missile defense effort it will have satellite kill capacity and will therefore be a potential ASAT weapon as well.

 

By Gil Marshall
Gainesville, Florida

http://www.globenet.free-online.co.uk/index.htm

 

 

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